Disembodied projects Soviet architecture
In the 30-50-ies of XX century the most interesting architectural projects have been developed in the Soviet Union, which did not come true.
Architectural projects in Moscow 30-50-ies are among the most ambitious in the history of the world. Huge buildings, palaces and arches were to embody the power of the world's first socialist state. The most talented architects from different creative schools competed for the right to implement their projects.
Among all the projects stood out, "General of Moscow reconstruction plan," adopted in 1935. According to this plan in the shortest time Moscow was to turn into a model and exemplary capital of the world. A whole system of highways, squares and embankments with unique buildings would realize the most beautiful dream of a bright future.
The Palace of Soviets
lofan B., O. Gelfreich, O. Shuko. Sculptor S. Merkulov. One of the options of the approved project. 1934
The contest for the Palace of Soviets in Moscow - one of the largest and most representative architectural competitions of the twentieth century. The competition received 160 projects. 24 proposals were received from the foreign participants, among whom were world-famous architects: Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn.
The building of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry
A. Vesnin, VA Vesnin, S. Lyashenko. 1934
In 1934, a competition was announced for the building of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry (Narkomtyazhprom) on Red Square. The construction of this grand complex tysych 110 cubic meters over an area of 4 hectares would lead to a radical reconstruction of Red Square and the surrounding streets and squares of China-town. Impressive projects Vesnin brothers - the leaders of constructivism, and have not been awarded by the jury.
I. Fomin, P. Abrosimov, M. Minkus. 1934
Ivan Fomin: "The two main vertical main facade are to create a gap, through which it would be good to look at the mausoleum. On Sverdlov Square building ends right end of the housing. There elected reception silhouette solutions. This end we break very grand arch, corresponding to the character of the old architecture of the area. The building plan is closed ring. Since the composition is closed, we did not want to climb on the whole higher floors 12-13 and only the tower will reach a height of 24 floors. "
A. Vesnin, VA Vesnin, S. Lyatsenko. Option. 1934
Of the explanatory memorandum to the draft "On the podium, answering the Kremlin wall, put four towers reaching up to 160 meters in height. Rhythmic construction, reflected in the four vertical elements of the colonnade and stylobate, creates a visual extension, required for longitudinal framing square, and meets the construction of the Kremlin wall. "
Hotel Moscow City Council ( "Moscow")
L. Saveliev, A. Ctapran. 1931
In 1931, the Moscow City Council held a closed competition to design a huge hotel on the 1000 numbers, the most well-maintained by the standards of those years. The competition involved six projects, better project of young architects and Stapran Savelyev was recognized. In the hotel project, its facade has been amended in the spirit of a new monumentality and orientation to the classical heritage. According to legend, Stalin signed just two options to solve the building facade, filed it on one sheet, with the result that the facade of the architecture of the hotel turned out to be asymmetric.
A. Samoilov, Boris Yefimovich. 1933
Competition for the project of the Palace of technology was announced in 1933. The very design of the object is a complex scientific and technical institutions. He had to "arm the masses of the achievements of Soviet technology in the field of industry, agriculture, transport and communications." The construction site of the Palace of land on the banks of the Moscow River was chosen, but the palace was never built.
Building Military Commissariat
L. Rudnev. 1933Cooruzheniya architect L. Rudnev are among the most notable in Moscow. In the 30 years of his project was built a number of People's Commissariat of Defense buildings. For this department buildings architect developed a special style with motifs formidable impregnability and overwhelming power.
D. Chechulin. 1934
The building of "Aeroflot", which is planned to be erected on the square near the Belorussky railway station, was designed by architect Dmitry Chechulin as a monument to the heroic Soviet aviation. Hence ostrosiluetnoe decision and "aerodynamic" form of high-rise housing. The project in its original form and purpose was not implemented. Almost half a century later, the general idea of the project was implemented in a complex House of the Supreme Council on Krasnopresnenskaya Embankment (now Government House).
I. Votes, P. Antonov, A. Zhuravlev. 1934
Project Book House - an example typical of the early 30-ies solutions building as "an architectural monument." Trapezoidal, soaring silhouette, simplified architectural forms and an abundance of sculptures in all parts of the building.
"Arch of heroes." Monument to the Heroic Defenders of Moscow
L. Pavlov. 1942C October 1942, in the midst of the Great Patriotic War, the newspaper "Literature and Art" reported: "Ends competition for monuments to heroes of the Great Patriotic War. From Moscow sculptors and architects received about 90 works. Received information about the expulsion of projects from Leningrad, Kuibyshev, Sverdlovsk, Tashkent and other cities of the USSR. Arrival is expected to more than 140 projects. " The author of "Arch heroes" architect Leonid Pavlov suggested to place the monument on Red Square. The monument was not built.
Residential building on Uprising Square
B. Oltarzhevskaya, Kuznetsov. 1947
Vyacheslav Oltarzhevskaya much engaged in architectural theory and methods of erection of high-rise buildings. In 1953 he published his book "The construction of high-rise buildings in Moscow", in which he tried to find a connection between this architecture and traditions of Russian architecture. Particular attention is paid Oltarzhevskaya designs and diverse types of engineering and technical equipment of "skyscrapers".
The high-rise building in Zaryadye
The prospect from the Red Square. D. Chechulin. 1948
In 1947 the Soviet government issued a decree on the construction of high-rise buildings in Moscow. However, the construction of 32-storey administrative building in the charge, which was to become one of the main landmarks of the skyline of the city center, has not been completed. Already built structures were dismantled, and on the foundation of high-rise buildings designed by the same Dmitry Chechulina in 1967, the hotel "Russia" was built.
B. lofan V. Gelfreich, J. Belopol'skii, V. Pelevin. Sculptor S. Merkulov.
One of the options of the approved project. 1946
Palace of Soviets was conceived as the largest building on earth. Its height should reach 415 meters - above the highest buildings of its time: the Eiffel Tower and the Empire State Building. The building-pedestal was to crown the statue of Lenin of 100 meters. In this system functioned special laboratories for optics and acoustics, mechanical operated and lightweight aggregate plants, a separate railway line has been communicated to the construction site. In 1941, in connection with the war, construction was suspended and has not reopened.
Today it is obvious that the best examples of this architecture in a large part as well as the remaining projects, deeper and more meaningful ideological dogmas in which they were carried out. Let unrealized projects of these buildings, monuments remind us that we can and must build a new, without destroying the previous historical values. What has given us the story, whether it is good or bad - it is our history, and we must accept it for what it is.