How to recycle and dispose of waste
I remember as a kid with my friends scouring backyards in search of glass bottles. Find a place of recent gatherings was the biggest success. We carefully collected bottles, checked them for chips (marriage is not accepted), then we wash bottles, peeled labels (there was nothing else to do) and carried the collection point. He was in my house in the basement, there is always smelled of spilled beer. Always someone something gave, always rattling of glass jars. Many "regulars" I know in the face and said hello. With the money we bought in nearby store gum and candy (golden childhood), and adults - beer and vodka. They drank it in the same place, so glassware is not to bear. Kindest drunk and gave us a bottle.
Today, in this place a grocery store. Few zavsegdatatev still hovering in the same place. For them, even made a perch where they can sit, clicking seeds and drink beer. Store owners take care of regular customers. But items for glass no more than 10 years.
In USSR recycling attached great importance. unified bottles have been designed for milk, beer, vodka, wine and soft drinks, nationwide collection of glass items existed. For the collection of waste paper and scrap metal involved schoolchildren and members of the pioneer organization. It has been launched hard keeping the precious metals used in industry, in particular in electronics. In a centrally managed economy of the former USSR the costs of collection and pre-treatment of waste treated in the cost of production industry.
In the new economic conditions of Russia Ministry of Economic Development did not consider secondary resources in those sites that require special measures of state regulation. The last 20 years of the state's role in the organization of waste collection and treatment has been falling steadily. Since 1991, the government abolished the system of secondary resources, which functioned under the auspices of the State Logistics Committee of the USSR. Under this system, employing more than five hundred companies of recycling and about 6000 receiving points on the harvesting and processing of secondary raw materials from the population. With the reduction of the state's role in the management of waste processing in Russia, in the developed countries, on the contrary, it increases the degree of public exposure. To reduce the cost of production using waste introduced tax incentives. To attract investment in production facilities for processing waste, a system of preferential loans. In order to stimulate demand for products with a number of countries imposed restrictions on waste products consumption, manufactured without the use of waste, to scale up the use of the system of urban and municipal orders for products from waste.
If we compare Russia and Sweden on the structure of treatment of waste, then everything becomes clear and of sad. In Sweden, more than 30% waste is processed, 10% for composting, 50% of electricity production and about 4% for disposal. In Russia, 4% is recycled, and 96% for disposal.
In Russia, the garbage dumped in landfills - there are only about 11 thousand. They are buried more than 80 billion tonnes of waste. It looks like this (Photo landfill for municipal solid waste "Left Bank" with the helicopter)
In Russia, the annual production of about 3, 8 billion tons of all kinds of waste. The quantity of solid waste is 63 million tons / year (average 445 kg per person). In our country is not developed completely ecological culture, and to the level of the European infrastructure for separate collection, we still like the moon. Today, a few of thousands of sorted household waste and transported it to the collection points. And few people are willing to pay 1000 rubles for it to properly dispose of your old refrigerator. Simply bring it in the trash. Eldorado company recently invited me to an industrial site UKO processing and recycling. UKO company operates in all regions of Russia, it has its own specials. trucks for removal of solid waste, equipment for the initial treatment of metal and plastic secondary waste. Today it is the only company operating at the federal level in Russia.
Taking the product for recycling, the company conducts a thorough analysis of them, trying to extract the maximum liquid secondary resources (plastics, metals, radio-electronic components) and minimize residue to be sent to special landfills. After this process is sent to waste for disposal is not 96%, and only about 7%. All the rest - for recycling.
When purchasing any appliances in Europe, the buyer offered to surrender the old to the scrap. To do this, in the shops, there are special departments, and Europeans are accustomed instead to throw appliances in the trash or in a ditch, carry all the equipment to the collection points. Also in stores take old clothes, used batteries and so on. D. Do not even know most of the people in Russia, where and how you can take old appliances.
- The main supplier of household appliances on our site - Eldorado company, which launched the action "Disposal" - says Artem Ermolin (Director UKO, a chemist by training, engaged in processing since the 90s). - The essence of action is simple. Eldorado shops offer discounts on their products in exchange for the old technique. We take this technique and recycle it properly. The action takes place twice a year, lasts an average of two months. During these actions we process large volumes of refrigerators, stoves, washing machines, televisions and any other equipment - from 40 to 70 thousand cubic meters. If you add up all the equipment in the trucks, you get a chain length of 12 kilometers. To date, more than 3,500 eurotrucks transported. This is slightly higher than the 100-storey building with a ground 30x30 meters. The first phase of work on the disposal of - receiving and sorting of products on the commodity groups.
Next, in the prior art retrieved nodes containing non-ferrous metals, electronics, if any, liquid plastics and glass.
An important stage of recycling of refrigerators and air conditioners - a pumping Freon, hazardous substances that deplete the ozone layer.
All the components are recycled. Glass is crushed, the plastic parts are crushed and pressed metal.
600-ton stern press.
The output obtained here such cubes that are sold to be melted in the steel mills.
About the cost of raw materials: in Russia are a ton of ferrous metal is worth no more than 9000 rubles. In England, more than 15 thousand.
A stack former washing machines.
In addition to household appliances, UKO company recycles paper, plastic, cellophane and styrofoam. At a special press crushes all the trash and pack it in a compact pallet, weighing 300-400 kg.
Mount plastic. Plastic later sent to the grinder and the resulting powder is spent on processing.
Pressed cubes polyethylene.
Another story with recycling computer equipment.
Accessories sorted by their values: motherboards, processors, power supplies, wire ... The most valuable thing in the computer - the motherboard.
Radio-electronic scrap to sell refineries, - enterprises engaged in production of high purity precious metals. At the exit of the chips obtained bank ingots.
One ton of motherboards turns kilogram ingot of silver and 100 grams of gold.
Rating recycling of its value:
Precious metals (gold, Rhodium, Platinum, Palladium, Silver) Copper
In the course of Eldorado shares for recycling old appliances at UKO site assembled a collection of rare specimens of Soviet and foreign technology. A sort of good old zapasnichek.
This is only a small part. Who cares, the main exhibition consists of 150 samples of the most interesting art of previous generations exhibited in the shop Eldorado at: ul. Lublin, 153, L-153 SEC.
Cosmic vacuum cleaners.
Many of the exhibits are still working.