10 facts about poisons
We tend to think that the poison is an element of Shakespearean drama, torn from the pages of the novels of Agatha Christie. But the truth is that death is all around us, in the neat bottles under the kitchen sink, in our drinking water and our blood. Below are the ten most insidious poisons in the world, some of which are exotic, while others - common.
In spite of the terrible glory, cyanide has a rich and fruitful history. Some scientists even believe that he may have been one of the chemicals responsible for life on earth. Today, it is better known as the death of the agent, the active ingredient in a B-cyclone which Nazis used for the extermination of Jews in gas chambers. Cyanide is a chemical substance used as a death penalty in the United States gas chambers. Those who come in contact with it, they say that it smells sweet almonds. Cyanide kills by binding with the iron in our blood cells, taking away their ability to carry oxygen throughout the body. In most US states it had prohibited the use of gas chambers, as too inhumane measure. Death may take a few minutes, and often terrible to watch as the convict beats in an attempt to prevent death.
A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water, hydrofluoric acid, are used in several industries such as steel and even in the manufacture of Teflon. There acids, which are much more powerful than hydrofluoric, but few of them are dangerous to humans. In gaseous form, it can easily burn eyes and lungs, but in liquid form it is particularly insidious. When exposed to human flesh, it was not initially brings pain. The fact that it does not hurt, means that people can be exposed to grave danger without even realizing it. It penetrates through the skin into the bloodstream where reacts with the calcium in the body. In the worst case, can seep through the fabric and ruin the major bones.
Fortunately for most of us, the chances of coming into contact with batrachotoxin extremely small. One of the most powerful neurotoxin in the world, it is on the skin drotikovyh tiny poisonous frogs. Frogs do not themselves produce the poison, it is created from the food that they eat, most likely due to the type of tiny beetles. There are several different versions depending on the species, but the most dangerous is considered the golden poison frog from Colombia. This little creature is small enough to fit on a finger tip, but one frog batrachotoxin enough to kill about two dozen people, or a couple of elephants. The toxin acts hitting the nerves, opening their sodium channels causing paralysis and, in effect, disabling the entire body of the communication with itself. There is no known antidote, and death occurs very quickly.
Prohibited Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993 (the world's reserves are being phased out), VX nerve agents is considered to be the most powerful gas in the world. He was found by chance in 1952 when a chemical test organophosphates, and soon was discovered and its dangers. He originally went on sale as a pesticide called Amiton, but was withdrawn from sale because it was too dangerous to society. He soon attracted the attention of governments around the world, and, as it was during the Cold War had been stockpiled for potential use in the war. Fortunately, the draw hand did not tremble, and VX was never used in combat. Cultist Japanese group Aum Shinrikiyo managed to create some volume of gas and use it for killing a man, but it is the only known human death from VX. The substance works by stopping the production of the enzyme in the nerves, resulting in constant activity occurs "storm" in the nervous system, which quickly overwhelms the body.
Made Dow Chemical and Monsanto (which is a short list of corporations "evil" in the world), and almost everyone has heard of the defoliant Agent Orange. It was used during the Vietnam War to destroy the trees that covered the enemy soldiers and destroy the culture in rural areas. Unfortunately, except for the killing of plants, herbicide contains dioxin, a chemical called of TCDD, a known carcinogen that causes a significant increase in cases of cancer, particularly lymphoma. In addition, tens of thousands of Vietnamese children were either stillborn or with birth defects, including cleft palate, additional fingers and toes, and mental retardation. Vietnam is still very polluted and the present day.
produced from castor beans, ricin is one of the most deadly poisons. Dose the size of a few small grains of salt is enough to kill an adult. It acts by stopping the production of proteins in the body that are necessary for survival, and plunges the victim into shock. Because of its ease of manufacture, ricin was used as a weapon by many governments in the world, and has been used at least once for murder, when Bulgarian dissident writer Georgi Markov was shot pellet of ricin on the streets of London in 1978. It is believed that the responsibility for the murder bears the Bulgarian secret police and / or the KGB.
metalloid arsenic has been used for centuries in all sectors of forging weapons to make up during the Victorian era (when the ladies appreciated morbid pallor). In the Dark Ages it became the duty of poison murderers all over the world due to the fact that the symptoms of arsenic poisoning resemble cholera, common at the time the disease. It acts by affecting the enzyme ATP in human cells, stopping the power transmission. Arsenic - an unpleasant substance, and in strong concentrations, it causes gastrointestinal disorders, seizures, coma and death. The small constantly consumed quantities (e.g., contaminated groundwater), it provokes many diseases, including cancer, heart disease and diabetes.
Lead is one of the first metals used by mankind, it was first smelted 8,000 years ago. And until the last few decades, we really had no idea how dangerous it is. Lead attacks every organ in the human body, and thus poisoning manifested a huge number of symptoms ranging from diarrhea to mental retardation. Children are particularly susceptible: venom causes permanent neurological deficits during fetal development. Oddly enough, many criminologists believe that the decline in violent crime has occurred, at least in part, by increasing regulation of lead. Children born in 1980 and later subjected to considerably less exposure to lead, and as a result may be less prone to violence.
Immediately after World War II poison Brodifakum used to protect against rodents (and, oddly enough, as a means my blood, people with clotting disorders). But the rats born to survive, so over time, many have developed resistance to brodifacoum. Brodifakum - extremely dangerous anticoagulant that works by reducing the amount of vitamin K in the blood. Because vitamin K is essential in the process of blood clotting in the body ultimately develops massive internal bleeding, blood seeping from the smallest vessels. Brodifakum, which is sold under various brand names, such as Havoc, Talon, and the Jaguar, should be used with caution, as it can easily penetrate the skin and remains in the body for a few months.
In general, obtained from the seeds of the tree Strychnos nux-vomica in India and Southeast Asia, it is a substance strychnine alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly rodents. Death caused by strychnine is painful as a neurotoxin affects the nerves of the spine, causing the body is distorted and there is a spasm, when the muscles are compressed against their will. Oscar was averted, the commander of the Nazi SS during World War II, introduced its prisoners and looked at their convulsions for your perverted fun. Strychnine is one of the few substances in this list, which is inexpensive and is available for sale: he probably sold at a local store.