Auschwitz - death factory
The word Auschwitz (or Auschwitz) in the minds of many people is a symbol, or even the quintessence of evil, horror, death, concentration of the most unimaginable inhuman barbarities and torture.
Many people today dispute the fact that, according to former prisoners and historians happened here. It is their personal right and opinion.
But having been in Auschwitz and his eyes saw a huge room filled with ... points, tens of thousands of pairs of shoes, tons of cut hair and baby clothes ... ... You have emptiness inside. And the hair stir on terror. Horror realizing that this hair, glasses and shoes belonged to a living person. Maybe the postman, and can be a student. Ordinary worker or trader on the market. Or girl. Or seven-year child. That they have cut off, removed, thrown into the pile. For hundreds more of the same. Auschwitz. Place of evil and inhumanity.
The young student Tadeusz Uzhinsky arrived in the first wave of prisoners
As I said in yesterday's reportage function Auschwitz began in 1940 as a camp for Polish political prisoners.
The first prisoners at Auschwitz became 728 Poles from the prison in Tarnów.
At the time the base camp there were 20 buildings - a former Polish military barracks. Some of them have converted to the mass detention of people, and it was additionally built another 6 cases. The average number of inmates ranged 13-16 thousand people, and has reached 20 thousand in 1942.
Auschwitz has become a base camp for the whole network of new camps - in 1941. 3 km Auschwitz II camp was built - Birkenau, and in 1943 - Auschwitz III - Monowitz. In addition, about 40 branches of the Auschwitz camp built near the steel mills, factories and mines was built in 1942-1944, which submitted Auschwitz III. And the Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II - Birkenau is entirely transformed into plant to destroy people.
On arrival at Auschwitz, the prisoners were selected, and those who were considered suitable for the SS doctors were sent for registration. Rudolf Hoess, the camp commander, in the first day, they said that they "... arrived at the concentration camp, from which the only way out - through the crematorium chimney."
We arrived prisoners were collected clothes, all personal effects, their sheared, registered and assigned a personal identification number. Initially, each prisoner photographed in three positions
In 1943 he entered the prisoner number tattooed on his arm. Infants and young children the number was applied most often on the thigh. According to the State Museum of Auschwitz, the concentration camp was only the Nazi camps, where prisoners of tattooed numbers.
Depending on the reasons for the arrest, the prisoners received triangles of different colors, which together with the numbers sewn on clothes camp. Political Prisoners relied red triangle, criminals - green. Black triangles obtained Roma and antisocial elements Jehovah witnesses - purple, homosexuals - pink. Jews wear the six-pointed star with a yellow triangle and the triangle of colors that matched the reason for their arrest. Soviet prisoners of war had a patch in the form of letters SU.
The camp clothes were quite thin and barely protected from the cold. Linen is changed at intervals of several weeks and sometimes even once a month, and the prisoners have not been able to erase it, which led to epidemics of typhus and typhoid and scabies
The prisoners in Auschwitz I lived brick blocks Auschwitz II -Birkenau - predominantly wooden barracks. Masonry blocks were only in the female part of the camp Auschwitz II.
During the entire existence of the camp Auschwitz I, registered in the camp here was about 400 thousand prisoners of different nationalities, Soviet prisoners of war and prisoners of housing №11, pending the conclusion of the police tribunal Gestapo. One of the camp life disasters were checking, verifying the number of prisoners. They lasted for a few, and sometimes more than 10 hours (eg, 19 hours, 6 July 1940). The camp authorities often declared penalty verification, during which the prisoners had to squat or kneel. There were checking when they had to keep their hands raised in a few hours.
Living conditions in different periods were very different, but they have always been disastrous. The prisoners, who were taken to the beginning of the first echelon, slept on straw scattered on the concrete floor.
Later entered the litter of hay. They were thin mattresses stuffed with a small amount. In the room in which barely fit 40-50, slept about 200 prisoners.
With the growing number of prisoners in the camp, it became necessary to seal their stay. There were three-tiered bunks. In one tier 2 lay person. In a litter was usually rotten straw. Sheltering the prisoners and rags that was.
In Auschwitz were wooden bunks in the Auschwitz-Birkenau as wood and brick with wooden flooring.
Toilet camp Auschwitz I in comparison with the conditions in Auschwitz-Birkenau civilization looked like a miracle
Dressing barrack in the camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau
Washing room. The water was only cold and access to it at the prisoner was just a few minutes a day. Wash allowed prisoners rarely, and for them it was a real treat
The tablet with a residential block number on the wall
Until 1944, when Auschwitz has become a factory for the destruction, most prisoners were sent daily to grueling work. At first, they worked on the expansion of the camp, and then they were used as slaves on the industrial sites of the Third Reich.
Daily columns of emaciated slaves went out and went through the gate with the cynical inscription "Arbeit macht Frei" (Work makes you free). Prisoner work was to perform a run, without a second of rest. The pace of work, meager portions of food and constant beatings increased mortality. During the return of the prisoners in the camp were killed or exhausted, who could not move themselves, dragged or carried in wheelbarrows. And it is time for them a brass band playing near the camp gate, consisting of prisoners.
For each inmate of Auschwitz, the unit number 11 was one of the worst places. Unlike other units, its doors were always closed. The windows were completely walled up. Only on the ground floor had two windows - in the room where the SS men were on duty. In the halls of the right and left sides of the corridor were placed prisoners awaiting sentence emergency police court, which came to Auschwitz from Katowice once or twice a month. Within 2-3 hours of work he carried from several tens to over a hundred death sentences.
Close the chamber, which was at times a huge number of people waiting for the verdict, had only a tiny barred window near the ceiling. A street side near these windows were tins, obscures the windows of fresh air
The condemned were forced to undress before being shot in the room. If this day they were few, the penalty was carried out right here.
If the sentenced were many, they were taken to the "Wall of Death", which was located behind a high fence with a gate deaf between 10 and 11 cases. On the chest naked people in indelible pencil was applied to large numbers of their camp numbers (up to 1943, when the tattoo on his arm), so that later it was easy to identify the corpse.
Under the stone wall in the courtyard of the 11th block was built a big wall of black insulation board, coated with absorbent material.
This wall is the latest facet of the lives of thousands of people sentenced to death by the Gestapo court for refusing to betray their homeland, escape attempts and political "crimes."
Fibers death. Sentenced shot raportfyurer or members of the political department. For this purpose, small-bore rifle, so as not to attract the sound of gunfire too much attention. After all, it not far held a stone wall, behind which was the highway.
The Auschwitz camp was a whole system of punishment for prisoners. It can be called one of the fragments of deliberate destruction. Prisoner punished for torn or apple found in a potato field, Urinating while working or too slow work.
One of the most terrible place of punishment, often leads to the death of a prisoner, it was one of the basement 11 of the body. Here in the back room there were four narrow vertical sealed cooler dimensions 90x90 centimeters in circumference. Each of them was located at the bottom of the door with a metal bolt
Through this door punished forced to squeeze inside and closed it on the bolt. In this stand the man he could be standing. So he was without food and water as much like the SS. Often it was the last penalty in the life of a prisoner.
"Directions" punished prisoners in punishment cells standing
the first attempt of mass destruction with the help of gas was produced in September 1941.
About 600 Soviet prisoners of war and 250 sick prisoners from the camp hospital in small batches were placed in a sealed basement chamber 11 of the body.
The walls of cameras copper piping with valves has already been carried out. According to him the gas fed into the chamber ...
The names of the people killed were introduced in the "book of the chronicles state" Auschwitz
a list of people who had been sentenced by the court to the police emergency death
found a note left by a person sentenced to death on scraps of paper
In Auschwitz, except for adults and children were also on their way to the camp with her parents. These were the children of Jews, Gypsies, and Poles and Russian. Most Jewish children perished in the gas chambers immediately after arrival at the camp. The rest, after a rigorous selection were sent to the camp, which were subject to the same strict rules as adults.
The children were registered and photographed as well as adults, and were designated as political prisoners.
One of the most terrible pages of history of the Auschwitz medical experiments were SS doctors. Including the children.
For example, Professor Carl Clauberg to develop a rapid method of biological destruction of the Slavs conducted on Jewish women in the building number 10 on the sterilization experiments. Dr. Josef Mengele in the framework of genetic and anthropological experiments conducted experiments on children, twins and children with disabilities. In addition, in Auschwitz were carried out all sorts of experiments with the use of new drugs and medicines in the epithelium of the prisoners to rub toxic substances, skin grafting was performed and so. D.
Summary of the results of the X-ray conducted during the experiments with twins by Dr. Mengele.
Letter to Heinrich Himmler in which he orders to begin a series of experiments on sterilization
experimental records Maps prisoners anthropometric data as part of Dr. Mengele's experiments.
Pages account books of the dead, in which the names of 80 boys who died after phenol injections as part of medical experiments
The list of released prisoners placed in a Soviet hospital for treatment
In the autumn of 1941 in the Auschwitz gas chamber begins to function, which uses gas "Zyklon B". His firm produced Degesch, which for the period 1941-1944, from the sale of the gas got about 300 thousand stamps arrived.
For the killing of 1,500 people, according to the commandant of Auschwitz, Rudolf Höss, it takes about 5-7 kg of gas.
After the liberation of Auschwitz, a huge number of used cans were found in the camp warehouses out of the "Zyklon B" and banks with unused contents.
During the period 1942-1943, only to Auschwitz, according to the document, about 20 thousand kg of crystals was delivered "Zyklon B"
Most of condemned to death the Jews arrived at Auschwitz-Birkenau with the belief that they were being taken "to settle" to the east of Europe. This is especially true of the Jews of Greece and Hungary, which the Germans had even sold non-existent building plots and land or offered a job at the fictitious factories. That's why people, aimed at the destruction of the camp, often brought with them the most valuable items, jewelry and money.
On arrival at the unloading platform, people collected all the things and values, SS doctors carried out the selection of the deported people. Those who recognize the disabled, were sent to the gas chambers. According to the testimony of Rudolf Höss, there were about 70-75% of the profits.
Items found in the warehouses of the Auschwitz after the camp's liberation
The model of the gas chamber and crematorium II Auschwitz. People are convinced that they are sent to the bath, so they look relatively calm.
where prisoners are forced to remove clothing and distilled in the next room, imitating the bath. Under the ceiling shower holes through which water flowed never been located. In the space of about 210 square meters. meter factory about 2,000 people, and then the door closed and the gas fed into the room. People died within 15-20 minutes. I pulled out the gold teeth of dead, shot rings and earrings, women cut hair.
Then the bodies were transported to the ovens of the crematoria, where the fire was buzzing continuously. In the case of furnaces or overflow at the time when they were damaged by overload pipe body destroyed at places behind the burning crematories.
All these actions are performed prisoners included in the group of so-called "Sonderkommando". At the peak of activity of the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, its population was about 1,000 people.
Photo taken by a member of the Sonderkommando, which can be seen the process of burning the bodies of people.
In the Auschwitz crematorium was located behind the camp fence. The largest of its location was the morgue, which was transformed into a temporary gas chamber.
here in 1941 and 1942 destroyed the Soviet prisoners of war and Jews from the ghetto, located in the Upper Silesia.
In the second hall there are three double ovens, which burned during the day up to 350 bodies.
In one retort placed 2-3 corpse.
The crematorium built firm "Topf and Sons" from Erfurt, which in 1942-1943 established a kiln in the four crematoria in Birkenau.
The case number 5 is now the worst. Here are the physical evidence of Nazi crimes at Auschwitz
Thousands of points, the arc of which are intertwined like the fate of people who withdrew their last before going to the "bath"
The next room half filled with personal hygiene - Shaving brushes, toothbrushes, hairbrushes.
Hundreds of prostheses, braces, crutches. People with disabilities to work was not suitable, so on arrival at their camp waited only one event - the gas chamber and crematorium.
Two-storey room, which overlap to the first floor is filled with metal utensils, which were in the suitcases of prisoners - bowls, plates, kettles ..
Suitcases with written on them the names of the deported people.
All the property, which brought the deported people, sort, store and most valuable exported to the Third Reich for the needs of the SS, Wehrmacht and civilians. In addition, prisoners of subjects enjoyed serving the camp garrison. For example, they turned to the commandant of a written request to issue a stroller, baby items and other items.
One of the most sinister of the room - a huge room, with both sides littered with mountains of shoes. Which was once worn by real people. Who shot her in front of "bath".
Silent Witnesses last minutes of life of their owners
Frees camp in Auschwitz, the Red Army found on unburned Germans warehouses around 7,000 kg of hair, packed in bags. These were the remains of that camp authorities did not manage to sell and send to the factory. An analysis carried out at the Institute of forensic examinations, showed that they are traces of prussic acid - toxic component that was part of the "Zyklon B". Of human hair German companies producing tailor's beading.
found children's clothes.
If it is impossible to sustain their form. I would like to get out of here quickly
Again, mountain shoes. Nursery.
The steps of the barracks buildings, which today houses a display of the State Museum of Auschwitz, pushed through millions of human legs, which for nearly 70 years, visited the museum of horror
The gates of death are closed factory January 27, 1945, when 7,000 prisoners left behind by the Germans waited for the troops of the Red Army ...