African kings - photos vanishing era
From 1988 to 1991, French photographer Daniel Laine photographed many African monarchs, "which created the African history of the dynasty until the mid-20th century."
Of the hundreds of monarchs Lane focused on those who continued to "preserve the tradition and spiritual power, which is difficult to understand the Western mind." Lane says difficulties in obtaining permission to photograph and sensual diplomatic negotiations in many cases.
The war in Sudan has prevented Lane Shiluka to photograph the king, a descendant of black dynasties who ruled in Egypt. Some, including the King of Swaziland, refused to be photographed. Each bright picture Lane gives a short biography and historical notes on the tribe and its traditions.
A book with photographs of him published in 2000, and many of the signatures were made over 20 years ago. So, most likely, the situation has changed in the country and, possibly, some of the rulers are no longer alive.
Joseph Langanfin (Benin). Representing the Abomey dynasty, Joseph Langanfin is president of the board of the royal family of Abomey. With this title he is regarded as the official representative of Abomey kings. He was chairman of the funeral of King Glélé, who was his great-grandfather.
They Ife (Nigeria). In 1980 he became Siyuvade 15th They (the King) of Ife - one of the oldest African dynasties. Earlier, during the coronation They had to take the sword of justice, and included in his palace on the carpet, soaked dried blood of the sacrificed men and women. Today they are - a rich businessman with a number of residential properties in Nigeria and England.
Nghi Kamga Joseph - Background bandjoun (Cameroon). Background (King) - the brother of the brave and powerful animals. At night, it can turn into a panther and hunt in the woods, running through the savanna and drink from the streams. If a panther kills hunter Backgrounds from Bamileke region are beginning to fear. Who was formerly the chief executive and the head of the Cabinet of the Minister of Finance of Cameroon in 1964, Kamga Joseph is the 13th bandjoun backdrop. On the day of the funeral of his predecessor, he was stopped in the market bandjoun Bamileke two chapters - "gallows". The headdress sisalya a sign of humiliation he was taken to the nobility - "Tafo measure", with whom he studied at 9 weeks to be king.
Khalid Salih - Lamido Bibemi (Cameroon). Khalid Salih, 12th Lamido (King) Bibemi got his throne in 1958. He is a descendant of Aido Samba, one of the 42 kings of Adamawa, which in the 18th century carried the flag Cihan (holy war) Usman dan Fodio.
Oseadeyo Addo Dankwa III - King of Akropong-Akuapem (Ghana). A graduate of London University and economic adviser to the Ghanaian administration, the king Akropong last 16 years to engage in "holy place" Akuapem-Ason, one of the seven major Akan clans. To his right is his "representative" with the royal emblem - an elephant, reminding that his kingdom was founded by force.
Aboubakar Sidik - Sultan of Sokoto (Nigeria). This photo was taken 15 days before the death of the Sultan of Sokoto. He ruled for 50 years. During the coronation of his successor, who was selected by a special board, the conflict began. Two royal families disputed the choice of successor; the result: a hundred dead. According to the Nigerian newspaper, Sultan power is so strong that most Nigerians would like to be more than the Sultan than the President of Nigeria. Aboubacar Sidik was not as rich as other rulers of the country. Every year he earned about a million naira (200,000 dollars). But his salary Sultan had to support his retinue of 86 people and feed about 150 grandchildren.
Hapi IV - King Player (Cameroon). Kingdom Bana emerged against the background of the tragedy. In the mid-12th century, several Bamileke groups founded a settlement in the small villages around the site of the current Player. According to legend, one of the heads of the village - Mfenge - accused of witchcraft. To justify himself, he cut off the head of his mother and gave her body to the experts. The fact that they believed that witchcraft is transmitted through the mother's womb, but it has not been proved in its case. Then Mfenge demanded behead mothers accused his countrymen. His four sons went from house to house, sending wives and mothers into the palace. Those who resisted, were killed on the spot. His opponents panic, and they fled, and became king Mfenge Player.
Hire Kok Mabiintsh III - King of Cuba (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Naimi Cocu Mabiintshu III 50 years. He ascended the throne in 20 years. As a descendant of the creator god, the king is credited with supernatural powers. Because of its supreme position he was limited to a few rules: he has no right to sit on the ground and can not walk on agricultural fields. Nobody has the right to see how he eats, but his cook. Moreover, he never goes without his cook and his personal kitchen utensils. Lane took three weeks to take a picture of the king in his royal attire ( "bvantshi"). This dress fabric, sewn beads and "kauri" (small shells, which are used as money), weighs 72 kg. To put the king needed more than two hours and two days of spiritual preparation to properly cleanse to wear the dress. The weight of the dress so big and it is so hot that wearing it more than an hour is simply impossible. Prior king put it only three times in my entire life.
Igwe Kenneth Nnadzhi Oniemaeke medaka III - Obi Nnewi (Nigeria). When Kenneth Nnadzhi hundred liters Nnewi king in 1963, he was a farmer, and his 10 wives has given him 30 children. To the east of the Niger River in the country is For Nnewi - a rich town with several millionaires. This kingdom, founded in the 14th century, consists of four large towns. When the Portuguese arrived in the region in the 15th century, there was a set of city-states. As in the case of Nnewi, the city appeared on the basis of a thriving slave trade. Born from trade, they lived only in trade and did not care about the creation of the state, united by the same Nigerian flag. Any ethnic and religious war, beginning the War of Biafra.
Isienvenro James Joha Inneh - Ekegbian Benin (Nigeria). 79-year-old James Inneh previously was a businessman. In 1962, King Akenzua named him commander of the Royal Guard "isienvenro". "Asako but s'oghionba" (ants bite the enemy king) - the so-called royal guard, responsible for the safety of the king. During some rituals they surround the governor, like ants.
El Hadj Seydou Ndzhimoluh Ndzhoya - Sultan Fumban and Mfon Bamuna (Cameroon). 80 years ago the Sultan Ndzhoya been on the throne for more than 50 years. At the age of 29, he inherited the throne of the famous Bamuna, founded in the 16th century. His country had chosen the wisest advice of the 177 children of his father - the famous Sultan Ndzhoi. His father, presvyaschenny ruler of 12 years invented its own alphabet, consisting of 80 characters. He wanted to learn to write in the language bamuna to write the history of the Kingdom. And while oral tradition dominated izlaganiya thoughts. In 1913, when Cameroon was still a German colony, Sultan Ndzhoya bought its own printing plant.
Agboli-Agbo Dedzhlani - King of Abomey (Benin). Dedzhlani, a former policeman, waited six years to retire, and then continued his secret coronation ceremony. "Officially" in Benin is no longer king. But September 30, 1989 Dedzhlani put on his royal shoes and at age 54 became the king of Abomey. Being monogamous, he had to take on a further two wives, who will take care of the household. Traditionally, going outside, it must be under an umbrella with his emblem. Next to it must always be one of his wives - she carried the cup for spitting. The king also had to constantly carry a scepter. He was carrying it in your hand or hanging on his shoulder - the scepter was considered very important. Silver dust protection, which the king wore on his nose, took place in the 19th century, it had inherited from the King Gbehanzin. She defended the king's nose from dust during royal processions in Abomey.
Goodwill Zveletini - King of the Zulu (South Africa). King Goodwill Zveletini - a descendant of the famous Shaka, the founder of the Zulu kingdom. At the beginning of the 19th century, Shaka was the head of a small and insignificant clan of Bantu people. Considering that the Zulu survival depended on their subjection to other clans, Shaka has led the region to blood and fire. In the period from 1815 to 1828. he took out of all the tribes, which he opposed. This turbulent period referred Mfekan (terror), and he was accompanied by famine and exodus of the majority of the population of Bantu. The brutality of Shaka became a legend.
El Hadj Mamadou Kabir Usman - Emir of Katsina (Nigeria). Emir of Katsina - an ardent lover of polo, and his family had made a great contribution to many championships Nigeria. In the 12th century, Katsina was a Hausa village, which Durbava rules - royal family, who emigrated from the region whose name is already lost in the annals of history. One of the kings Darbavy - Dzhanzava - Daura married a princess from another Hausa state. Queen Katsina gave its name the village, which was a stop on a commercial trans-Saharan route from Tripoli (Libya).
Salomon Igyuinoghuda - Both Erediauva Benin (Nigeria). March 23, 1979 Prince Salomon, a graduate of Cambridge University, was crowned the wallpaper (king) of Benin. He became a follower of his father Akenzua II and became the 38th king of the 13th century the dynasty. "Most chalk stick is broken" - this metaphor officially announced Akenzua death. Immediately thereafter, Edo Nigeria, England and America nalyso shaved head. New growth of hair symbolized the rebirth of the kingdom and restore harmony between people and nature, which violates the death.
Aliyu Mustafa - Lamido Adamawa (Nigeria). Once Adam, who was also called Modibo, heard that the great marabouts (Muslim leader) named Usman dan Fodio declared jihad (holy war) in Gobire and country house. After the death of Adams its vast territory became Adamawa, which occupies part of southwestern Nigeria and the entire northern Cameroon. Today Lamido 60 children, and he is an adviser to Amadou Bello University in the Dawn - one of the most prestigious universities in Africa.
Both Joseph Adekola Obunoe - Tin Owo (Nigeria) 600 years ago, Tin (King) fell in Ourense - a very beautiful girl. Unfortunately for the king, she was a goddess who could not live with the people. She was not allowed to see the woman pounded spices, carry water or throw an armful of sticks on the ground. Because of his love for the goddess and to marry her, the king promised her that before her his other wives will not do anything of the above. Several years later, his wife became jealous of his king. They did before the goddess of all that they were forbidden, and the goddess imposed a spell on all the kingdom. The goddess promised that Ovo people die from hunger or diseases if the king and his advisers will not be carried out each year a ceremony in her honor. Drums must ask her forgiveness and to praise it. She must also sacrifice a man and a woman. This ceremony is called Igogo still exists, but casualties have replaced sheep and goats.
Bouba Abdoulaye - Sultan Rey Bouba (Cameroon). Baba (Sultan) Rey-Bouba rules over more than 55 000 objects, and its territory as big as Belgium and Luxembourg combined (35,000 km²). It can not be called Lamido, because he has never been a vassal of Sokoto. Bouba Abdoulaye had been a member of the Parliament Assembly of Cameroon, but he had to give up and renounce modern life, to become the successor to his father. His great-grandfather came from Bouba Ndzhidda Mali in 1799 with his soldiers Fulani and Adamawa decided to organize a border on the edge of the river Mayo-Rey. He placed a white flag, a silver drum, a sword and a basket with the royal secrets and built a palace with the surrounding wall 800 meters long and several meters high. Today, these walls surround one of the most traditional sovereignties Africa. He is an invisible and constant power. He is allowed to leave the palace only three times a year. Baba - center of the world and the kingdom. He knows everything and must know everything. Hundreds of agents inform him about everything that was happening in his kingdom.