Ekofakty 2011

Memorable ekofakty 2011, that will help us remember that humanity is cared in the past year.

Ekofakty 2011

- Every 20 minutes, from the earth disappears one species of animals.

- Every year the world production of hydrocarbons burned waste 400 million tons of natural gas. This amount of gas will be enough 77 million vehicles a year.

- On heating per inhabitant per year is spent in Moscow 4 tons of fuel equivalent.

- A total dump in Russia occupy an area of ​​more than 2 million square kilometers. Each year, the amount of waste is increased by 7 billion tons, while for recycling takes no more than a third incoming volume.

- Since the beginning of the industrial revolution some 500 billion tons of carbon dioxide was absorbed by the world ocean waters. As a result, over the past century, the acidity of the waters of the oceans has increased by 30%.

- The latest forecast of the UN Population Division world population by 2100 may reach 10, 1 billion people. A great contribution to the planet's population growth will make Africa. The number of the continent's population will increase from 1 billion to 3, 6.

- Some 80,000 different chemicals present in food and consumer goods.

- By rough estimates of 15-20% of the global emissions of carbon accounted for felling tropical forests.

- Initially, the 2000s in the tropical forests of 75 countries contain about 247 billion tons of carbon. In the combustion of fossil fuels and land use changes in the atmosphere of our planet is 10 billion tons of carbon per year.

- Researchers have found that 49% of the deposited carbon tropical forests accounts for Latin America. In Brazilian forests have 61 billion tons of carbon deposited. For comparison, a little more of the deposited carbon (62 billion tons) are in the forest all the African countries south of the Sahara. - The total capacity of solar power plants to be built and launched in Russia in 2020 will amount to 150 MW.

- Over the past 2,100 years the maximum sea level rise observed since the end of the 19th century.

- Studies of some scientists suggest that urban residents, as opposed to rural, the risk of mental disorders by 21% higher, and mood worsening by 39%. Moreover, the risk of schizophrenia among those born and raised in the village, and then moved to the city in 2 times higher than that of people who have passed all his childhood in the city.

- 1 m 2 ​​ urban vegetation temperate zone is able to bind (deposit) of about 3, 16 kg of carbon.

- Today, the focus of the world community involved in the climate change problem in the first place - to anthropogenic emissions (CO2). However, a key regulator of the Earth's climate is wildlife (Bukvarova, 2010). Anthropogenic emissions account for a few percent (3, 4% by IPCC, 2007) of the total carbon flux in the biosphere. For example, the microbial decomposition of organic matter in soil - the return path is the primary carbon terrestrial ecosystem in the atmosphere - 7 times greater than its industrial emissions (Zavarzin Kudeyarov, 2006). Stocks of carbon in biomass, soil, and the upper layer of frozen ground peat thousand times the man-power flows.

- In China, the beginning of the 1990s, annual damage from mass deforestation of 12% of GDP, while its major part (92%) was the result of degradation of habitat-forming functions of the forest (Ya-Shi et al, 1997)., Which led to catastrophic wind and water erosion, dust storms, desertification, pollution of the ocean by river offsets the soil and the soil.

- Annual investment of 45 billion dollars you can save on ecosystem services $ 5 trillion in protected areas (for conservation of ecosystem services in the world requires 6 times more than the cost). - An example of interest in support of the conservation of the local population at the expense of forest ecosystems to benefit from non-timber forest products can serve Tomsk region. Currently, outside of the area is taken out of mushrooms, berries, pine nuts, medicinal plants and their products worth about 1 billion. Rub. The share of non-timber forest resources is about 1% of the value of the natural capital of the Tomsk region and 20 times the economic value of the actual wood resources.

- Biodiversity of our planet on a rough estimate is 14000000 species are known to science (described) 1750000 only.

Forests cover 4 billion hectares (31% of the planet's surface). Five "forest countries" (Russia, Canada, Brazil, the USA and China) account for more than half of the world's forests.

- Implicit loss of forest ecosystems on Earth, is now about 28 billion euros per year, which is comparable to the losses from the recent global crisis..

The share of ecosystem services of global GDP is 6.8%, while global GDP for the poor 40-50%.

- natural capital losses during deforestation and degradation of forests and account for 2-4, 5 trillion. USD. Per year. When investing 45 billion. USD. Per year in the protected area can be obtained ecosystem services worth 5 trillion. in year.

- About 40% of world trade is related to products or processes related to biodiversity, such as agriculture, forestry, fishing and plant-derived pharmaceutical products. Biodiversity is an invaluable resource for innovation.

90% of our time is spent indoors. On life support buildings consumes 40% of all energy produced in the world. In Europe, 30% of buildings do not provide a healthy indoor climate.

- From 1990 to 1999. number of buildings received deformation due to uneven subsidence of frozen ground bases, has increased by 42% in Norilsk, 61% in Yakutsk and 90% in Amderma (LLW). U.S. (AK) to improve reliability of pipelines in permafrost use the latest technology ( "floating foundation"). Cost appreciation Alaska oil pipeline length of 1, 5 thousand. Km. 5 is Mill. tonnes (1/2000 was spent oil reserves a system that provides protection from the negative processes associated with the melting of permafrost) (MM Schatz). As a result of the melting of very icy rocks of Yakutia annually loses 11 square meters. km. sushi. In the next 25-30 years, the average annual temperature on the Arctic coast of Siberia could increase n 3-5 ° C in Yakutia; the Far East and the north of European Russia at 2-4 ° C. It is in the next 25-30 years will lead to a reduction in the area of ​​development mnogoletnemerzlotnyh species (MMP) by 10-18%, and some of them will go to the relict condition or completely protal. Moreover, by mid-century the territory of the IMF will decrease by 15-30%, while its boundary will shift to the north-east at 150-200 km (M. Schatz).

After 1966 Yakutsk coldest November to March warmed to 3-6 ° C, average winter temperature at average 1961-1990. - 25 9 ° C, increased by almost 4 ° C, and the average temperature of nearly 3 ° C (MM Schatz).

- Judging by the forecasts (. Member of the RAS from IMZ VT Balobaev and Prof. VV Shepelev from IMZ) warming over 2010-2015, then there will come a cold snap, which runs until 2060..

- Increased anthropogenic impact on the environment, especially the combination of radiation-toxic, are "risk factors" of brain dysfunction in children of preschool age. The highest percentage of preschool children with impaired physical development of harmony is revealed in kindergartens in urban areas with high levels of pesticide and combined radiation-induced environmental loads (YM Sadovnikov, GP Zolotnikova).

- Functional state of adolescents residing in cities with high levels of toxic and chemical pollution, characterizing high blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) decrease in the average duration of the PR-interval and a decrease in sensorimotor speed of reaction to visual stimulus (RV Kurguz, G. P. Zolotnikova). - Average 1 hectare of greenery for one hour consumes 8 kg of carbon dioxide, ie, the same amount of that in the same period exhale 200... Greenery significantly reduce the concentration of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (0, 08 to 0, 27 mg / 3), hydrogen sulfide (from 0 007 to 0 026 mg / m3). Group delay trees 21-86% of dust and 19-44% decrease air pollution microorganisms. In general, it is estimated that the vegetation absorbs from the air and binds 50-60% of toxic gases, while 5-20% of atmospheric moisture, soil - 5.10%, ponds - less than 5% (Frolov A, 1998)

- Deep green array at a distance 250 m from the boundary of its dust content in the air is reduced by more than 2, 5 times. Of the dust properties of different species of trees and shrubs are unequal. It is best to delay the dust rough elm leaves and lilac leaves, covered with villi. elm leaves antidust about 5 times greater than the poplar leaves; lilac leaves 3 times more poplar and t. d. (IO Sharygina)

- According to specifications per inhabitant metropolis must account for 10m 2 area of ​​greenery.

- sulfur dioxide - the main pollutant air pool in the city reduces the intensity of photosynthesis pine on 75-83%, from 48-85% in the fir, larch at 19-51%, linden - at 15-36% (I. About . Sharygina).

- oak in the forest-year growth of branches is typically 180-200 mm, in a suburban park - 65-70 mm, the park industrial district - 20-30 mm. Linden branches in the forest growth is observed 150-180 mm, in the park of a residential area - 45-60 mm, and in street plantings - 15-16 mm (Frolov AA, 1998).

If in vivo small-leaved lime live to 500 years or more, in urban areas it is considered to be an age limit on the boulevards - 90 years, street plantings - 65-70 years (Kovyazin VF, 2006). - According to the territorial production association of landscape management and green building of St. Petersburg in 2009 to 35% green space accounted weak and severely weakened trees (IO Sharygina).

- Man-made low-frequency magnetic noise in large cities exceeds undisturbed variation of the geomagnetic field hundreds of times. The population of large industrial centers and their environs is constantly under the influence of the electromagnetic field is strongly perturbed low and very low frequency which is similar to the natural magnetic storm intensity points 4-6 (DS Tjagunov).

- In the Russia produces about 40 million tons of municipal solid waste annually (MSW), of which only 35% recyclable. In the currently utilized only 10% of generated waste (waste recycling in the EU Member States, 2010). In some EU countries, the per capita accounts for 400-700 kg of solid waste, of which recycled or composted 60-70% (market overview recycling, 2010).

- The composition of solid waste include: paper - 40%, food scum - 20%, glass, plastic, wood, rubber, textiles and more.

- The amount of waste on the territory of the Southern Federal District is increasing annually by an average of 10 - 15 percent (VS Demyanova, SV Dyrova).

- In Russia, at the end of 2009, it housed 15 thousand registered landfills and 10 thousand illegal...

- According to German researchers, each spectator sporting event after the leaves around 200 garbage. So, after a major sporting event produces about 3,000 tons of waste.

- It is known that 3/4 of all species of flowering plants, mammals, 1/4, 1/2 of all the insects and reptiles are threatened with extinction. If not taken security measures, by 2100 half of the known species will disappear from the face of the Earth. - In the Southern Baikal region for the past 20 years the average annual temperature has increased to 0, 6 to 0, 6 ° C.

- Restoration of native forests usually takes variously estimated time period of at least 200-300 years, taking into account the whole complex of the factors and conditions in the northern and middle taiga to restore native forests must be 500-600 years (Danilov-VI, Losev KS, Volkov AD, Gromtseva AN)

- In soils northern areas of the Earth contains about 1, 7 trillion tons of carbon dioxide. About 88% of this amount of carbon dioxide locked permafrost.