How to build a skyscraper in New York City
I have many years haunted this photo here, is often found on the covers and posters. And all cleared up now. Specific questions inside me was how these men came to the beam? I'm afraid of heights.
Not that to distraction, but my rare surreal dreams associated with the phenomenon of fear. When viewing photos and reading the text I naturally palms sweating with fear.
So, how to build a skyscraper.
The same picture - "Lunchtime atop a Skyscraper" (Lunch atop a skyscraper) - Photo from the series "Construction Workers Lunching on a Crossbeam - 1932" photographer Charles Ebbets (Charles C. Ebbets).
Such a miracle as a skyscraper, it would not have been possible without the invention of the steel frame. The assembly of the steel frame of the building - the most dangerous and difficult part of the construction. It is the quality and the speed of the frame assembly determines whether the project was implemented on time and within budget.
This is why riveters - camaya important profession in the construction of a skyscraper.
Riveters - a caste with its own laws: the salary riveter per working day $ 15, more than any skilled worker on a construction site; they do not go to work in the rain, wind or fog, they are not registered in the state of the contractor. They are not single, they are working teams of four people, and stands one of the teams not to go to work, does not leave anybody. Why, in the midst of the Great Depression look at it through my fingers all the investor to the superintendent?
On the platform of planks, or simply on the steel beams standing coal stove. Furnace rivet - 10-cm in length and 3 hsantimetrovye diameter steel cylinders. "Cook" "cooks" rivets - small bellows drives into the oven air to warm them up to the desired temperature. Rivet got warm (not too much - provernetsya in the hole and it will have to be drilled, and not too little - not riveted), you now need to convey a rivet to where it will bind the beam. What beam and when it is attached - a pre-known, and to move in a hot oven can not during the day. Therefore, the fastening location is often of "cook" in meters 30, sometimes above and sometimes below 2-3 floors. Convey a rivet is only one way - to throw.
"The cook" turns to "keeper" and silently, making sure that the goalkeeper is ready to receive, tongs throws red-hot 600-gram disc in his direction. Sometimes on the trajectory already welded beams, you need to throw once, precisely and powerfully.
"Goalkeeper" stands on a narrow platform, or simply on the bare ravine next to the riveting place. His goal - to catch a flying piece of metal tin ordinary tin can. He can not move, so as not to fall. But he must catch the rivet, otherwise it will crash a small bomb on the city.
"Shooter" and "stop" are waiting. "Goalkeeper", catching the rivet, pushes it into the hole. "Emphasis" on the outside of the building, hanging over the abyss, steel rod and its own weight keeps her hat rivets. "Shooter" 15-pound air hammer for a minute clench it with the other hand.
The best team is doing it the focus of more than 500 times per day, average - about 250 times.
In the photographs - the best in the 1930 team, from left to right: "cook", "goalkeeper", "stop" and "arrows".
The danger of this work can be illustrated by the following fact: the masons in construction are insured at a rate of 6% of salary, carpenters - 4%. Riveter rate - 25-30%.
At the Chrysler building killed one person. On Wall Street 40 killed four. At the Empire State - five.
skyscraper frame consists of hundreds of steel profiles of several meters in length and weighing several tons, so-called beams. Store them in the construction of a skyscraper nowhere - will not be allowed to organize a warehouse in the city center, in a dense housing, on municipal land. Moreover, all design elements are different, each can be used in a single place, so even attempt to organize temporary storage, for example, one of the last built floors can lead to great confusion and disruption of construction terms. That is why, when I wrote that the work riveters most important and most difficult, I did not mention that it is also the most dangerous and difficult. Work harder and more dangerous than them - work the crane crew.
An order for beams has been agreed with steelmakers few weeks ago, driving up their trucks to the construction site to the minute, regardless of the weather they must be unloaded immediately.
derrick - boom swivel is built on the top floor, assemblers - on the floor above. The winch operator can be located on any floor of the already constructed building, because nobody is going to stop the lift and distract other cranes for lifting heavy machinery on a few floors higher for the convenience of installers. Therefore, raising juggernaut channel, the operator does not see the beam itself, nor the car that had brought her or his comrades.
The only reference for control - a bell, on a signal supplied apprentice foreman located with dozens of floors above the entire crew. Strike - Includes winch motor, kick - off. Nearby are several teams with their hammers, riveters (you ever heard the noise of a jackhammer?) Other crane lifted by teams of their bells other channels. To make a mistake and do not hear a hit can not be - channel or rammed boom crane, or reset to set the vertical beams installers preparing its consolidated.
The foreman, managing Derrick through two operators, one of whom he does not see, is seeking matching holes on the riveting set of vertical beams with holes on raising sill up to 2-3 millimeters. Only then steam fitters can clip reeling, often wet channel, the huge bolts and nuts.
In New York, on 2nd Avenue is a monument to these guys, installed in 2001 model has become the most famous picture.
So, first made a monument just in the photo, t. E. 11 men sitting on the beam. And then the most extreme right was removed at the root. It was only due to the fact that he was holding a bottle of whiskey! I understand if it's done with us in the time of Gorbachev, but they have in 2001! Apparently, they did not want to destroy the legend of brave guys. Now it's 10 quite decent guys sitting on a steel beam. Fine. But somehow insulting.
There is a version that works in these brigades selected people who have no fear of heights from birth. It seems that it is the Indians of a tribe with a common congenital feature. That's just not known whether this is true.