Name Eugene Chaldean little known, his photographs - everything. At least two: made in May 1945 picture "Banner over the Reichstag," which has become a real symbol of victory, and the famous photograph "The first day of the war", the only shot in Moscow on June 22, 1941. These two frames give a bright, but, of course, an incomplete picture of the work of Eugene Chaldean.
Marshal Georgy Zhukov. Victory parade. Moscow, June 24, 1945
His footage 1941-1946 years, documenting the war from the announcement of the German attack on the Soviet Union to the Nuremberg Trials, went around the world and are given as illustrations in countless books, documentaries, books and encyclopedias.
The main war criminals in the dock. Nyurberg. 1946
With its images look at us and Stakhanovite foremost workers, soldiers and generals, careless children and engaged public affairs party officials, miners and obscure chapters of world powers.
These photos are history - the history of the vast country and the history of one man, a great master, a sensitive nature and meaning of his work, has the gift of an exceptional creative expression, respect and understand their characters.
Yevgeny Khaldei was born April 10, 1916 in Ukraine, in the mining town Yuzivka (now Donetsk). Time and place of his birth is not foreshadowed cloudless childhood in the Ukraine was fighting the Civil War, and the actual military operations were interspersed with favorite in places of entertainment - Jewish pogroms.
Parents Eugene, orthodox Jews, this has affected the most tragic way. In 1917, when rioters broke into their home, his mother was killed, and the future of photography, which she covered his body, got its first and only single gunshot wound. The bullet, which took the mother's body, stuck under the edge of the child, and Eugene survived only thanks to the efforts of the local paramedic. Fatherless boy took to his grandmother, who was raised in Eugene strict Jewish traditions. However, the interests of boys from a young age were not in the religious plane. The future of photography is clearly preferred to the local photo shop, where he worked as an apprentice, helping the photographer-neighbor washed and dried prints.
In 1928, at the age of 12 years, Eugene Chaldean fashioned his first camera: lens served as the lens of my grandmother's glasses, and the body - the usual cardboard box. With this device, he made his first photograph that captures a town church. The church was soon destroyed, and the boy, who became the owner of the historic pictures, began to think about the power of photography. However, the era for such thoughts did not have. In 1930, famine in Ukraine.
In the field. Ukraine. 1935
Eugene Chaldean, which in 1930 he graduated five classes of high school, "attributed" to itself another year and got shining in the locomotive depot. Hard work has become a means of survival: a working card provided rations to 800 grams of bread a day. In addition, work has opened up new financial and creative possibilities. Chaldean in installments over a year has gained Photocor-1 camera and started taking photos with enthusiasm factory life.
On one of these pictures, depicting working in the gas tank, he pays attention to the factory newspaper editor. It was the beginning of working life Chaldean photographer. Soon, he worked in the factory newspaper on a regular basis, participating in everything from runaway circulation on shops to capture leaders of manufacture. Collaborated Khaldey and propaganda team - here he is involved in the release of the wall newspaper.
At this time, the photographer had to work with primitive equipment, made mostly with his own hands. Its main "production tool" has been already mentioned chamber with a rope and a rod cover nailed on shoe polish, wherein the magnesium contained in vatke powder. Studied Khaldey on the move: something he was assisted by the editor, something aspiring photographer peeping in Kharkov and Kiev newspapers, in the magazine "Proletarian photo", and something tells and life itself. His textbooks with some stretch can only be called the brochure "press photographer in the construction of socialism", "Photography in the political departments of the MTS and state farms", "20 rules of photo essay," etc. With a stretch -. Because they are devoted to these benefits have been largely the ideological content of photos and correct display of Soviet man, whose face should be "illuminated by the idea of building a communist society." Technical basics of the Chaldean comprehended in the fullest sense of the word "self-taught".
Work. Donbass. 1934
Perseverance and talent of the photographer soon began to bear fruit. Photographer began to cooperate with the Ukrainian "Pressphoto and, later, the agency" Soyuzfoto "in Moscow. In that organization fifteen Khaldey in a cardboard box to send their glass negatives - for each snapshot taken in the photo library agency, the photographer paid 5 rubles. 1933 Khaldey met in the newspaper "Stalin's work."
On its front page editorials often appeared satisfied with the Chaldeans, photographs, mostly portraits and reportage shots of miners with picks and hammers. Soon Chaldean noticed and rise again - the new place of work of the photographer was the newspaper "Socialist Donbass". However, the glory of the photographer has gone beyond the newspaper. In 1935 and 1936, for two consecutive years, twenty photos Chaldean received second prize at Vsedonetskih photo exhibitions.
Moscow. "Dynamo" stadium. 1947
In 1936, the Chaldean came to conquer Moscow. Young photographer with success - he joined the News in pictures TASS. However, in the capital of Chaldea was not late. For him, began traveling life: a trip to Western Ukraine, in Yakutia, Karelia and Belarus. Intensive work has contributed to the development of creative skills, much to learn from the best and Chaldean masters of our time - in their photographs in the magazines "USSR in Construction" and "Spark". The formula of its success - the exact direction of each image, the careful selection of future heroes, favorable angles of the best achievements of Soviet industry. Those years belong made in reportage style photography Alexei Stakhanov and Pasha Angelina, classic portrait of a young M. Rostropovich and Shostakovich - one of the most famous works of the Chaldean peacetime.
But times of peace came to an end.
"June 22, I returned from Tarhan, which celebrated the 100th anniversary of the death of Lermontov - recalled Eugene Chaldea in his notes. - I rented there children from rural literary circle. One boy read poems: "Tell me, uncle, for good reason, Moscow, scorched by fire ..." and I asked him to repeat these lines again and again to make a good doubles. If you like to know!
And then came the morning in Moscow, went up to the house - and I lived near the German Embassy, look - the Germans of the cars unloaded units with things and enter the embassy. I could not understand what was happening. And at 10 am, a call from photochronicle and ordered an urgent report for work. In 11 Levitan began to speak on the radio, "Attention, Moscow says, all work station ... important government message will be sent in 12:00." He repeated this for a whole hour - nerves were all on edge. In 12 came the voice of the Molotov. He stuttered slightly. And then we heard the terrible: "... bombed our cities, Kiev, Minsk, Bialystok ..."
Muscovites listen to a speech by Molotov on German attack on the Soviet Union. 1941 Ul.25-October, Moscow June 22, 1941 12 noon.
Eugene Chaldean joined the group of war correspondents, who went to the front.
He came to the Northern Fleet, and then the war wore a black naval uniform. With his Leica camera, he went through the war, all the 1,418 days and the distance from Murmansk to Berlin. Chaldean captured the Paris meeting of foreign ministers, the defeat of the Japanese in the Far East, the conference of Heads of Allied Powers in Potsdam, the signing of the act of surrender of Germany. He participated in the liberation of Sevastopol, the storming of Novorossiysk, Kerch, liberation of Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, and at the Nuremberg trials of his photographs have been shown in the number of real evidence.
Banner over the Reichstag
An interesting story is connected with the famous photograph "Banner over the Reichstag."
Eugene Chaldean himself told how everything was then: "I've worked in Photochronicle Tass Suddenly the chief cause, and said that an urgent need to fly to Berlin There are storming the center, you have this photograph, or even better take a picture of how the soldiers are hoisting the red flag over the Reichstag.. .
But in Berlin I can not find a red flag! Regimental colors once more there are fights, I do not give ... I decided to go to the supply chief photochronicle. I worked there each Kaplinsky.
- Requirement, capa ... Immediate job flying to Berlin, you need to get the red banner material.
- Where am I, Jack, you'll get the red stuff?
- Do you remember when we held a union meeting, you have a table shrouded red cloth ... So there is need for special occasions ... Do not worry, I tell you it's true ...
C this red material, I went to a friend the tailor, "Moses, - I say - there is urgent work"!
- What could be more urgent than what our troops need is about to take Berlin and catch the "Dam Gazly Hitler" (the villain of Hitler)?
- Perhaps you're right. I have just for this matter tomorrow flying to Berlin. And you, Moses, to help me.
Throughout the night, we together conjured over red cloth. The tailor stitched three flags. One even had time to sew a star and the hammer and sickle. And I cut material - Kapa one will forgive me ...
In Berlin, I went to three soldiers have captured the Reichstag to make a historical snapshot. Somehow I made it to the roof. It was necessary to choose a point for the shot, so that not only could see the banner and the roof, and a Berlin street. I found on the roof of the surviving statue and addressed the soldiers: "Who will be able to get to this figure and attach the flag"
- I'll be able to - offered the young gunner.
We found in the attic of the shaft and attached to it a red flag. Gunner climbed on the statue, and one of its insured. On the same day in the evening I flew to Moscow with documentary photographs. Printed reference images. Bild editor-handed. Suddenly, I find it himself CEO TASS Palgunov:
- Chaldean, that you brought?
- Like what"? Pictures with the Reichstag.
- Look closely. You want to show the world our marauders?
I began meticulously considered soldiers. Indeed, one of them on both hands were hours. I had to go to the laboratory and a needle scrape with hands submachine second pair of watches.
Then I returned to Berlin, kept shooting prostrate capital of Germany, winners of soldiers who leave their autographs on the columns of the Reichstag, the girl-regulirovschitsa, strict tracking of the traffic at the Brandenburg Gate "
The Soviet tanks entered the city. Berlin. May 1945
The ability to not only use to their advantage the circumstances, but if necessary, make small productions again Chaldea handy during filming at the Nuremberg trials. Here the photographer faced with the inability to change the point of shooting: the photographer was not allowed to move around the room, and all the actors occupied a special place. The problem was solved bribing guards - two bottles of whiskey he agreed to at the right time to move, to allow the photographer to take pictures of Goering in the right perspective.
War criminals in the dock. G. Goering. Nyurberg. 1946
A year earlier Chaldean fulfilled another very famous picture depicting Stalin in the white dress uniform during the Potsdam Conference.
The leaders of the "Big Three" anti-Hitler coalition in the Potsdam conference: Prime Minister of Great Britain (July 28) Clement Attlee, US President Harry Truman, chairman of the SNK and chairman of T-bills of the USSR, Stalin. The Potsdam Conference was held in Potsdam from 17 July to 2 August 1945 in order to determine the next steps for post-war Europe. However, after the war for Eugene Chaldea fell on hard times. According to the "fifth article," it is fired from TASS. The official language was, of course, the other - "downsizing", but a less streamlined expression of party officials use Chaldeans referred to as the photographer was "inappropriate."
His images appeared again in the national press only after almost ten years, the Chaldeans joined the newspaper "Pravda", where he worked for fifteen years. In the sixties Khaldey made a series of big stories, from which it is possible to note a report about the students of Moscow State University and a report about the voyage of the Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker "Lenin".
In 1973, the Chaldean was enrolled as a photographer in the newspaper "Soviet Culture", from which resigned in connection with his retirement. His name, once gremevshego with front pages of editorials, it was forgotten. However, for professionals Eugene Chaldea was still outstanding.
Song of Joseph Stalin. The Bolshoi Theatre. Moscow. December 1949
Fully restored historical justice only in 1995, two years before the death of Eugene Chaldean. At this year's Festival of Photojournalism in Perpignan (France) Chaldean honored along with other war photography maestro, American Joe Rosenthal, a special decree of the President of the French photographer was awarded the title of Knight of the Order of Arts and Letters.
There, in Perpignan met Eugene Chaldean Mark Grosse. While director photoschool Icart-Photo, not once was a part of the jury of the famous photo contest World Press Photo, Mark Grosse wrote about Eugene Chaldea his monograph, which soon came under the name "Chaldean. Artist of the Soviet Union. "
Soviet soldiers with German Standart. victory parade on Red Square June 24, 1945.
In the same 1995 in the US with great success the exhibition Chaldean photos. Albeit belatedly, work TASS press photographer yet taken a worthy place in the golden fund of world photography. In any case, so say the French critics, according to which "Banner over the Reichstag" known "in the western world to any person," and is "an integral part of our collective consciousness." Khaldei toiled in obscurity for most of his life and his last years, until 1997, while away in a small Moscow apartment on a modest pension. His small apartment turned into a darkroom and a gathering place for colleagues. He continued to work in photography, favorite thing, to whom he gave 65 years of his life, even when he could not accurately focus on a enlarger without the help of students. Eugene Chaldea died October 7, 1997.