The history of computers
To date, computers have become such an important and integral part of our lives that it seems impossible that sometime they might not even exist. How exactly these devices of various modifications, the forms, complete sets could enter into every sphere of our existence? We offer a far from complete and not quite a scientific essay about the highlights of the development of computers.
The world of ones and zeros. The photo - a woman working at a computer company IBM in 1955.
2700 BC. e. Scores. Although the exact place and date of creation of accounts continues to be called into question, it is likely that the scores have been invented by the Sumerians around 5,000 years ago. With the help of special tiles are allowed to carry out quick and relatively complex calculations, so that the scores can be called the first computer.
1801: Jacquard loom. Designed by Joseph Marie Jacquard, it was the first machine using punched cards to control the sequences of the series. In order to change the pattern of the produced tissue machine to use punch card. It was a kind of binary code: the principle of "a hole - no holes." Jacquard loom was a key step in the development of computer programming.
Charles Babbage (1791 - 1871) Charles Babbage was born in London in 1791. That is what English mathematician credited with the idea of mechanical calculation of mathematical tables, as well as the idea of the creation of two special-purpose machines, so that Charles Babbage could be considered one of the founders of the fathers of the computer.
1824: Difference Engine. Having obtained a grant for its construction in 1824, the British pioneer of computing Charles Babbage created a "Difference Engine No. 1" - the first successful automatic calculator. Part of it is shown in the photos, was collected in 1832, Babbage engineer, Joseph Clement. It consists of approximately 2,000 units and represents one-seventh part of the proposed full "Difference Engine".
1837: Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Conceived Babbage in 1837, this machine was designed to evaluate any mathematical formula and had a significantly greater potential analysis than its original "Difference Engine".
1944: The Machine "Colossus". Machine "of Enigma", developed in Germany, created the codes that were considered not subject to interpretation of that was the impetus for the allied forces during the Second World War, to create a top-secret car "Colossus", which is considered the first electronic computing device for breaking codes and ciphers . At the top of the photograph: the residence of Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire, England, which served as the headquarters for the code-breakers of the allied forces during the Second World War.
The machine "Enigma". Machine "Enigma" that was used to decipher the codes during the Second World War.
1946: "ENIAC". Creating "ENIAC" (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) began during World War II, but was not completed until 1946. The first electronic digital computer a general-purpose machine has been designed to solve a number of problems (and in contrast to the "Colossus", which was quite a secret device, the public was announced its existence). At the top of the photograph: the work on the ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.
The creators of "ENIAC". John Mauchly and J.. Presper Eckert near the "ENIAC", 1966.
1951: "UNIVAC". With the advent of "UNIVAC" (Universal Automatic Computer), computers have suddenly ceased to be the exclusive prerogative of the government, and made available to the business. At the top in the photo: two people work on the various components of the massive computers "UNIVAC" in 1960.
1952: "UNIVAC" notice. Computers "UNIVAC" became known after they have been used to predict Eisenhower's victory over Stevenson in the presidential elections of 1952 year.
Another use of "UNIVAC". The Honorable John W. Allison near ribbons "UNIVAC", used for the printing of the Bible in 1957.
1947: the transistor. Although technically it is not necessary for the computer, the transistor was an important step in the manufacturing technology of magnitude smaller devices. In short, this is the main reason that we can carry laptops, not to sit next to "UNIVAC", which takes up the entire room. Above: Miniature transistor M-1 had seen on the cent in 1956.
The inventors of the transistor. John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Bratt in 1954. For his work, they received the Nobel Prize in physics.
1958. The IC chip. A key building block of all computers, integrated circuits allowed to make even smaller model than has been possible with the transistor - and most importantly, allowed to make computers accessible as it has helped to reduce prices. The picture shows the model of the first working integrated circuit.
The inventor of the integrated circuit. Jack Kilby of the company "Texas Instruments" from Dallas, 2000. He received the Nobel Prize in physics for his invention.
October 4, 1957: Sputnik. Although the Soviet Union was the first country, which conducted a successful launch of a satellite into orbit, probably the satellite launch has brought much more benefit to America as well as the specter of Russian dominance in space has led the United States to the decision to invest huge resources in the development of science - including, of course , computer Science.
1963: Mouse. Collected by Douglas Engelbart and his team at Stanford, the mouse (so named because it resembled the tail cord) may be necessary to move the cursor. In the photo: the mouse at an early stage of development.
Another example of a computer mouse on Engelbart.
August 1966: Computer for the mission "Apollo". Designed laboratory "MIT Instrumentation Laboratory" and one of the first computers based on integrated circuits, it was designed as an on-board computer for the guidance, navigation and control command module and lunar module program of the spaceship "Apollo" for the flight to the moon. Roughly speaking, it was the same amount of memory as that of today's musical greeting cards that are able to sing "Happy Birthday."
April 2, 1968. The premiere of the movie "Space Odyssey 2001" That the film has formed our understanding of computers as something choen important and useful, but not very credible. In the photo: the director Stanley Kubrick with Keir Dulloo and Gary Lockwood.
1969: "ARPANET". Although the Internet has been developed in several stages, none has been more significant than when the program was then called "ARPANET" (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), and brought to life with the support of the US Department of Defense, has helped the computers at UCLA and Stanford exit Research Institute to communicate with each other. At the top of the photograph: Made in 1969 by Larry Roberts, one of the developers of the program, the drawing process ARPANET connections.
"ARPANET" sweeping across America. The map shows the "ARPANET" system of communication centers in 1972.
Awards for the "ARPANET". President George W. Bush speaks in Los Angeles with the scientist Leonard Kleinrock in 2008 after awarding him the National Medal of Science for his outstanding achievements, including his role in the "ARPANET".
June 28, 1972: Foundation of "Atari". "Atari" will be vital for the dissemination of video games that will prove to the people that computers are created not only for the dull zauchek. Computers can really bring joy! At the top of the photo: International Tournament in "Asteroids" game in 1981.
April 1976: Demonstration of Apple I. The first computer with a fully assembled motherboard was sold for $ 666, 66, and allowed Apple to start his thirty-year dominance of the art market.
Those who were in favor of Apple. Co-founders of the "Apple" Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs in San Francisco, 1977. (In 1976, one of the founders included Ron Wayne, but after 12 days, sold his shares for $ 2,300).
1980: The invention is a combination of Ctrl-Alt-Delete. It seems that it is a mere trifle, but without David Bradley (one of the members of the IBM PC team) you would turn on and off your computer is much more complicated than you do now. He is credited with the invention is so familiar to all functions of Ctrl-Alt-Delete to personal computers. At the top of the photograph: Bradley sits in front of one of the first PC computers in 2001.
1981: Donkey Kong. Created by Shigeru Miyamoto, the game "Donkey Kong" was a sensation and provide users with Mario character (who would later appear in numerous other video games). Its success is important for the Nintendo, as the company became well-known brand, particularly in America.
August 12, 1981: IBM PC. First, the computer was used only by special public services. Then I began to be used, and business organizations .. By creating a PC (personal computer), IBM has made a huge step towards ensuring that everyone had their own computer. Among the innovations: the use of an open architecture for the hardware, so customers did not have to buy exclusively from IBM, as could apply to other companies.
January 22, 1984: Apple Strikes Back. Apple was not going to yield to IBM market forever. In 1984 they struck back with the help of TV commercials, filmed in future Oscar-winning film director Stanley Kubrick. On advertising under the name "1984" laughed a lot, but it was popular. In her computer screen was flying hammer, which meant symbolically "devastating" blow to the dominance of IBM. Above: Scott removes advertising in 1985.
24 January 1984: Macintosh. Two days after the ad "1984", "Apple's" presented its new product - which, unlike from IBM, possessed a mouse and a graphical user interfeysom- starting a debate on the theme of "the Macintosh and the PC", which continues today. Above: The first Apple Macintosh 128K computer.
June 6, 1984: Tetris. Launched by the Soviet scientist Alexey Pajitnov, Tetris puzzle game has become a sensation and is essential Nintendo Game Boy system development. Over 25 years, it continues to be popular, it has already sold more than 100 million games for mobile phones.
November 20, 1985: Microsoft Windows. Brilliant! Having decided not to develop a new computer and operating system software required to use the computer, the Microsoft co-founders Bill Gates and Paul Allen figured out how to make more money than anyone else engaged in technology (or any other business).
The young Bill Gates. In the future it will become the richest man in the world. The photo was taken in New York in 1984.
1991: Founding of the company "Blizzard Entertainment". People want to play games, but they do not want to be in this alone. Decision? Online Games. Founded in 1991, "Blizzard Entertainment" company will develop to create a franchise, including Warcraft, which bring together millions of users across the globe. In the photo above: Visitors are playing World Of Warcraft in the game room at the fair of new technologies CeBIT in Hanover, Germany in 2010.
December 3rd, 1994: PlayStation. Sony released the famous home gaming console. sales amounted to more than 100 million units (one of the advantages: the ability to play audio CDs). much later, Microsoft and Nintendo responded to the release of the Xbox and Wii. At the top of the photograph: Teenager at a computer store in the area of electronic stores of Akihabara in Tokyo in 1998.
In addition to Japan. Game consoles are popular all over the world, even in Côte d'Ivoire.
May 11, 1997: The Triumph of Deep Blue. Deep Blue is regarded by many as the ideal player - the best of artificial intelligence programs. At the top of the photograph: Kasparov fought with Deep Blue in Philadelphia in 1996.
1999: Napster. Created by 18-year-old Shawn Fanning, Napster allowed to make the exchange of files between users (for example, suddenly became very easy to share music and other goods without paying for them). Show business is still in shock about it. Above: Fanning in New York in 2000.
February 4, 2000: The Sims. For any person to whom parents said immediately stop playing games and start to live your life, The Sims has become a real boon. This game allows you to exist in the online world, is incredibly similar to the real, - and once and forever changed the presentation of what is a computer game. At the top of the photograph: the game's creator Will Wright in 2008.
January 15, 2001: Launch of the Wikipedia project. Wikipedia defines itself as "a free, multilingual encyclopedia project network .... his 17 million articles ... were written jointly by volunteers around the world, and almost all of the articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site. " Wikipedia project was launched January 15, 2001-so that now you do not have to collect money to buy a dozen encyclopedic dictionaries on different topics .. At the top of the photograph: Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales.
October 23, 2001: IPod. Portable media player from Apple (and associated software from ITunes software) showed the music business that can make money even when the CD continue to go out of fashion. Like almost all Apple products, it also has an elegant design.
November 9, 2004: Firefox Start. Innovation and profitability do not always go hand in hand. Cooperation often - is the key to open, but the joint work may not be possible when the company strictly enforce the copyright. Software with open source is computer software available in source form that allows users to study, change, improve, and redistribute the software. Perhaps the greatest achievement in this area is a free browser as Mozilla Firefox, use about a third of users.
Defender for the software with open source software. Few did more to create an open-source software than Tim O'Reilly lectures and articles including written "Open Source Paradigm Shift" in 2004. He played an important role in the transition from the term "free software" to the term "software open source" (such imprecise formulation seems less dangerous for corporations). At the top of the photograph: the general director of "O'Reilly Media CEO" Tim O'Reilly (second from right) in San Francisco in 2010.
April 28, 2008: Grand Theft Auto IV. game series actually debuted in 1998, but with each new version, it is becoming more and more popular. GTA has caused heated controversy (and brought billions of dollars to its creators) due to the presence of sex scenes and violence. At the top in the photo: a poster advertises the midnight premiere GTA IV sales in New York.
April 3, 2010: IPAD. The latest offering from Apple -planshetny computer designed to serve as a platform for books, periodicals, movies, music and games as well as a new way to access the Internet. A huge number of competitors, including Toshiba, Motorola, Lenovo, and countless other companies around the world, immediately released their version of the tablet. IPad has radically changed the idea of what a computer is. Above: the customer leaves the shop "Fifth Ave Apple Store" in Manhattan.